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    Elucidating pathway arsenic methylation

    The multiple strains of Prochlorococcus possess a variable assortment of accessory genes suited to the specific environments they inhabit (Rocap et al., 2003; Kettler et al., 2007).

    The complement of phosphorus acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus also varies among the strains (Martiny et al., 2006).

    Diagram representing an idealized cross-section of a Prochlorococcus cell highlighting mechanisms likely responsible for arsenic entry into the cell and detoxification.

    (3) Arsenite can then bind to the trans-acting Ars R-repressive regulator, (4) arsenite can be recognized by the arsenite efflux transporter ACR3 which shuttles the toxin out of the cell, or (5) the arsenite can be methylated by the putative arsenite S-adenosylmethyltransferase, Ars M.The high affinity phosphate uptake system ubiquitously present among Prochlorococcus strains (Figure 1) consists of the periplasmic binding protein Pst S and the membrane-bound ABC-type transporter Pst CAB (Scanlan et al., 2009).The Pst CABS system is unable to completely differentiate between arsenate and phosphate in Escherichia coli (Rosenberg et al., 1977; Tawfik and Viola, 2011).This efflux detoxification was believed to be the major arsenic detoxification strategy for Prochlorococcus.A second microbial arsenic detoxification strategy is the methylation of arsenic into more innocuous organic compounds.

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